Crime & Difference: What I want to say to our new local Toronto Police superintendent

English: The neighbourhood of Danforth Village...

English: The neighbourhood of Danforth Village in Toronto, Canada, looking east down Milverton Boulevard at its intersection with Woodmount Avenue. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Toronto crime” is the the top search term that lands people on my blog, a blog about neighbourhoods and how we live together in community. However, as Mazlow’s hierarchy of need describes and, as our new local police superintendent must know, safety is the basis of all else.

Crime, and the threat of it, is why we pack high school auditoriums and why we write worried letters-to-the-editor. Whether our reaction is to lock ourselves behind double-deadbolted doors or to set up Neighbourhood Watches, these  are the ways we seek to protect ourselves and that which we love.

Last summer I attended a nearby community meeting with the local crime prevention officer. The attendees, many of my better-off neighbours, fretted about activity in the back alleyways, apparent drug activity at some homes, and people with substance abuse problems wandering by on neighbourhood sidewalks. None of these made the neighbourhood very family-friendly, so this focus wasn’t unfounded.

This is a neighbourhood where a substantial number of its residents have had some involvement with the criminal justice system, and the local police station has shown that targeting the few “bad apples” can drive down crime. Combing through a map of incarcerated individuals from a 2009 Toronto Star investigation, I found this part of the east end ranked on par with a few of the city’s better-known priority neighbourhood areas (see More below).

My own son, like many of my friends’ sons, had been mugged. It’s almost a neighbourhood rite of passage, disrupted once when a group of young men broke with orthodoxy and confronted a local mother demanding she turn over cash. For my son, though, it ended well. Older boys intervened and one of them, recognizing the aggressors, talked them into returning the stolen money. (Honour among thieves, indeed! I loved this story, when I finally heard it, because of the two degrees of separation and the power of social networks and social norms.)

I sat listening for a while, sympathetic to these women, protective too of their broods.

But now my son, the teenager I love, has grown. He is taller than me with a bristly haircut, a loping walk, and arms he’ll flex at the merest provocation. He looks, admittedly, a bit scary to some. And, as a mixed-race kid, he doesn’t carry the skin privilege I do.

Were they talking about him? A few assured me afterwards they didn’t mean him, of course, that they knew he was a good kid. But that’s small comfort. He has already been stopped by the Police, and I know the police won’t be asking my neighbours to vouch for him.

So our crime prevention meeting abruptly became nerve-wracking. Suddenly we weren’t talking about criminal activity. We were talking about how people looked, or dressed, or ambled around the neighbourhood. We were ready to call the police when someone, muttering to themselves or holding “too much” cash, walked by our porch. This, in a former working class neighbourhood, still with a group home, a rooming house, public housing, and scattered supportive units for people with mental health challenges?

Were we talking about enforcement over community-building? To sanction over supports?

Perhaps if we are scared enough, I heard.

This is the nub of the challenge our new superintendent will face: the tensions that arise among those who are different from each other, among those who do not have an easy understanding of each other and a code of behaviour to smooth things over.

It will take a sharp mind and a good heart to negotiate these waters, but I’m sure she’s up for the job of catching criminals, of resolving local disputes, and, as they say, of knowing the difference between the two.

A New Community Crisis Response Model: Changing the impulse for fight-or-flight towards tend-n-befriend, blog post 2009

Toronto Star Provincial Jail data:

 Postal Code GTA average M4A (Victoria Village) M4B (O’Connor-Parkview) M4C (Crescent Town & Woodbine-Lumsden M4E (Beach and East End Danforth) M4J (East York, eastern) M4K (Pape to Broadview, East York) M4L (almost Beach) M4M (South Riverdale)
Total Jail Cost $82,071 $9,614 $71,571 $256,374 $58,325 $129,042 $14,955 $246,333 $20,189
Rank (provincial, based on cost) 380 236 43 259 139 364 48 348
Inmates 3.6 1 3 9 2 4 3 12 2
Inmates per 10,000 pop. 1.3 0.7 1.5 1.9 0.9 1.1 1 4 1
Total Days Sentenced 768.3 90 670 2,400 546 1,208 140 2,306 189
FSA population 28,265 14,709 19,392 45,095 23,616 34,883 31,456 30,028 19,684
Median Household Income $69,359 $45,861 $52,042 $49,537 $71,358 $54,905 $57,682 $59,327 $48,438
% Low Income 15 24 23 25 13 21 19 22 25
% Unemployed 4 7 5 7 3 5 5 5 5
% Completed University 24 21 19 24 38 25 36 29 25
% Single Parents (Female) 19 19 18 19 16 18 16 19 20
2009 Data
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